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Paradigm

Maisang thupiang tu heakkhol theina a om tu ziam? Bang hun ciang hun hong kikheal tu ci bang khawng e, tuatkhol theina dan a om tu ziam? Kituat khol kihe khol thei bek dom ngawl a, tuabang tuat khol vacin pai sia heak kholna kingin kholna ih nei buale ngual kiban zo ngei ngawl tu hi ci hi. Tua heak khol tuatkhol theina sia Paradigm (Pairadime ci sim tu) kici a, Greek laimal paradeigma pan hong pai hi. Dictionary sung a khiakna zong leang zong, om paih teei nave, tuhun laimal zakdan taw zong a khiakna kibang valian thei nawn bua i, a paidan ih heakpui natu 1968 kum a thupiang khat taw enkak tawng.

Paradigm 2Tua hun lai khawng na mu papo khat kuung, tuzo kum 10 kum 20 khawng ciang leitung nai pha bel a vawt, leitung bup nai tambel a zuak ngam sia bang ngam hi tu na um ziam ci dongh le te, na dok po na Switzerland ngam hong ci paih set tu hi. Banghangziam ci le Switzerland ngam sia leitung bup a, nai phabel a vawt le nai tambel a zuak ahi zawk sia tuasia lai ngangawn zong kum 60 bang pha zo hi. Leitung bup nai pha a deite le nai maan vaset a zangh nuamte in Swiss nai ma kilei hi.

Swiss te zongh in nai a vawt uh ciang, vawt ngei teng ma vawt lingleng, luun kikiik ci bang vazeang hi ngawl het a, a pha seseam a pha thethei tu ngaisun hi. A vawt maksak uh nakhat sang’n a vawt kiik uh nakhat sia, a pha zaw a sua thetheina hanciam hi. Nai a zuak phit sawng uh lai nai hun ciaciang kihe thei bek kasap, a pha seseam tu hong hanciam a, a om ngei ngawl lai manet a kihe thei tu hong bitphua a, tuak pan setkan a kihe thei tu hong bitphua tato hi. Tuabang a kiheak thei natu a kisamh gear, bearing ci khawng tu hun dong ih zak mainspring ci khawng hong phuak tawm thei hi. Tui tum thei ngawl tu vawtna khawng, taw piak kul ngawl nai ci khawng ngaisutna pha a thak a thak taw nai pha seseam a pha vaial ci veu tatsat ngawlin vawt hi. A minthanna a thiamna ahi theina tungtawn a lungkim cip paih lilu sia tuateng taw tawl om ngawl het hi. A dem zo tu ci thada a nungzui zo tu zongh om tham bo. A nambat niina mun a kingaal mu vale tu beak zongh om zo ngawl het lai hi. Tuabang zata ma nai vawt dadangte taw kikhaai leilam lei hikale, nasia tak ma tawlnga ngawl het ma hanciam veve hi.

1968 kum khawng en kik leang, leitung bup nai a kizuak theampo ii 65 percent sia Swiss nai bebek ma hi a, a meet ciilteal bebek zongh 80 percent (pawl khat na 90 percent sangin tam zaw cici lai) bang nga zen hi. A ngam mite zongh in hau law a, a ngam zongh in hauna ma na nei hi. Tuabang a nopsakbel hun laitak, muanmawk ngawl het a 1980 kum ciang nasep theampo hong laltham niknek sia, leitung bup Swiss te market share sia 65 percent pan 10 percent sang’n a tawmzaw dong hong kiamsuk vahai thong hi. A meet zongh ni dang 80 percent bang a nga hehuna pan 20 percent sang’n a tawmzaw dong hong taaksuk lalai hi. Nai vawt nasep nai zuak nasep sia nasep pha hong hi nawn ngawl het hi. Swiss ngam zongh leitung a nai phabel vawt, nai tambel zuak kum tam hialpo ma nambat khat ahi liluna pan taaksuk cip a, maizum nga phial hi. Bang tat thong ziam? Supna pui khat dong taw na lianpi khat thu hong piang thong ngawl ziam? Nginat ngawlna, zuzauna om vet ngawl a, siatna pui khat thuak hi thong ngawl ziam? Bang thu hi thong tu ziam? Tua dongtawna thu sia Paradigm ci min kivaw hi. Paradigm ci sia hun khat ciang hong kilaih a tua paradigm kilaihna (Paradigm Shift) sia Swiss te in he vet ngawl ahikom a thuak dikdek ma hong kul lei hi.

Paradigm thu paizia Swiss te nai vai taw ma en thua tawng Nai vawtdan Swiss te ii khut thiamna sia set bulphu nai vawtdan hi. Mainspring gear bearing cite pawl taw nai nungta sak hi. Nai vawtdan a dan bulpi sia a zung pan ma kilongh tham a, nai vawtdan a thak sinsen khat hong piang zo ta hi. Nai hun heak thei natu set paidan zui a, nai a kivawtna pan electronic paidan taw nai a kivawt hun hong theng hi. Electronic quartz nai hong pian po ciang zak nuam mama, a manh zongh ol hoi zongh hoi thei mama tana leitung bup in dei hon a lei tek pai vangawk thong hi. Swiss te zongh a nai vawtsa te nidang bang a kikhok thei nawnngawl ciang, tuabang ahile ei zongh ih vawt paih lei batu ziam ci huai mama ii ve, a nung a zui kik tu tam lalawm hi tana kilaih paih vazingh thei ngawl a, Swiss nai vawtte sia tung thei vet nawnngawl hi Tuasia ciang nai vawt nasepna puul hong tung a, 1979 kum pan 1981 kum dong tua hun sung bebak zongh Swiss ngam bup nai vawt naseam mihing 62, 000 sung pan 50, 000 bang nasep taan zezen hi. Switzerland bang, ngamno khat atu sia dongtawk demdom tatak ma hi paih hi.

Hi thu hong pian ciang Switzerland ngam in dongtawk hikale, a dang ngam khat atu sia kaam phatna dau paina pui khat hong suak leleau hi. Ih heaksa bangma Japan ngam ma hi. Japan te sia amate zongh nai khawng ma vawt lei a, amate nai zongh Swiss te nai za ma pha lei kasap, 1968 kum lai a leitung bup nai zuakna a ki et ciang, market share 1 percent bekma nga vanguat hi. Electronic quartz nai hun hong thet leleau ciang, Japan sia lampui pi hong suak hi. Japan ngam nai vawtte sung pan zong Seiko ma lampui pi hong hi lalai hi. Tu hun ciang Japan ii market share sia ni dang 1 percent pan tu 33 percent dong bang hong kaato vangawn hi. A meet zongh 33 percent bangma nga veve lai hi.

Swiss te in lametna lianpi nei a, hanciam a naseam hikale amate lametna taw kileebul a thu tuampui khat hong pian thong sia, maisang thu paidan thu thak hong piang tu, bang hun ciang tua thu hong piang tu ci sia heakkhol theina, tuatkhol theina khat nei le tu bang dongtaw liang kul ngawl tu hi kici hi. Paradigm sia heakpui ngawl ahiciang nai vawtdan a thu bulpi hong kilaih hun zo, hong kilaih le zong mai kum sung hi tu ziam, mai nawn khawng ciang hi tu ziam cite pawl heakpui nawn ngawl hi kici hi. Banghang a tuabang mawsiat vanuau ziam cile electronic quartz taw nai vawtdan a bitphua sia Japan te hi ngawl a amate, Swiss te ma hi zaw hi.

Electronic quartz nai sia Switzerland ngam Neuchatel Research Institute pan hong bitphua hi a, 1967 kum Paradigm 3Swiss ngam bup nai vawtte kisik tuana a “Maisang nai vawttu dan thak” ci a lak lei kasap naivawt te, sumzian taw nai thuk tute le, leitung bup nai zuak a zel tu te hong kikup hong kikup ciang, “Ngina bo, maisang nai thuk natu nai vawtdan thak a, kizangh thei buan teh” ci a bangma hen sak ngawl vahai thong hi. Gear le om ngawl, bearing le zangh ngawl, nai khut zongh om ngawl numbat taw po lak vanguat, automatic nai ci ka lei mainspring beak zongh zangh ngawl bettary zangh tu ci lalai ci a, a e et uh ciang ngina sa ngawl het, a thin uh zo thei mama ngawl hi. A ngina ngawl, bangma a kizangh thei ngawl na hi lei tana, tua kum leitung bup nai congress (World Watch Congress) ah a thu a cing laksak piikpeak lei hi. Tua mun ah Seiko in na mu a, nai vawtdan theampo a teptee paih valep zawk po ma uh ciang, hi thu teng hong piang ahi hi.

Swiss te ii na hi khial bangte pawl ei zongh bangbang pial thei tu hi ziam? Swiss nai vawtte ii na hi khialna bek a ih ngaisun tha le, ngam bup ii nasepna pipi te zongh kihi khial niknek thei mama hi. Kipawlna tatuam Corporation pupui te zongh seam khial vanang tawntung hi. Eima khat tek khat tek zongh naa ih sepkhial ni tam pheivei hi. Ih vek pipi ma kingaisun khial thei tek peuma hi.

Khanghaam te in nidang hun a paisa hun sia, hun phat lai leitung phat lai veu ci thei hi. Amate mun pan tu hun sia hun pha hisa nawnngawl, hamsa sa mama zo. Maisang hun ci khawng ngaisut zongh sawm nuam tuak nawn ngawl phial hi. Eima tek zongh in hi kisa chichim thong hi . Ahitazong ih nung sang thupiangte kilaih thei nawn bo ih ci hang, tua a piang sa te sung pan bekma, a sia a pha vawk tu vom tu, cite kihe thei hi. Naa a pha a sia a piang hun sia tu laitak hun sia hi a, tua thupiang teng zong sia a bosa hun lai a “Mai sang bangba hi tu” ci a ih ngealna sa teng tungtawn ma a kilua tato hong hi vahai hi. Tua hi tana hong piang pheang tu ih mailam hun sia, ih daupai hun a suak theibel tu sia hi pheang hi. Tu laitak hun sia sung ma ih mailam hun tu phatak tuatkhol, mukhol thei hi leang “leitung phat lai” a kici thei bangma “leitung phat tu hun” hong suak thei tu hi.

A piang ngawl lai maisang a hong piang thei tu thu khat sia, “ngaisutna” taw kihe thei tu ahi zen le, tu ma tokhum zaal pha sia to diudeu kawm ngaisun pai dindun tawng ih ci tu hangzong, a piang thei papaih hi tuak ngawl leleau. Paradigm principles ci a ih heak tu, ih zui tu thu tam ma om vak. Tuasia ma zong naa ih sep ih vawt ih heaknop sia taw kisai, thu om ngei theampo a tangthu theampo le mihingte ii omzia ci bang thu tam ma a cing dildel a khawng a kheak a khawmtua phot a ciang, tuate tungtawn a Paradigm ii thu paidan taw kituatto dimdem thei pheang tu hi.

Ngamlian mipil nasep lian seam a ngualzo te ii nasep dan khat sia, tu tawm mama ih zakpui paih thei ahibatazong, tuabang nasep theina dan khat a om hunlam ih heak pui lei natu deisakna taw thu tawm hong kaikhawm hi ing.

Etkaak laite:
1. Joel Arthur Barker-Paradigms: The Business of Discovering the Future.
2. David J. Bosch – Transforming Mission: Paradigm shift in Theology of Mission.
3. Lan Barbour – Myths, Models and Paradigms: A Comparative Study in Science and Religion.

________________________________________

Heaktu: Khuavak SRBA Magazine No. 8 Sungpan

MP

Ci Dam In Khan Sau Theina

MIT

MIT Saang Thu Heaknophuai Pawl Khat

Hydro

Tuimei (Hydro Electricity)

Kawlngalkap

Kawlngam Sung Tapidaw Hong Thet Phitna Thu

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